In addition to the tribal-specific grant programs, OJP administers the following formula and discretionary grant programs that can be used to enhance and support the ability of tribal governments to address crime, violence, and victimization.44
Formula Grant Programs
- The Edward Byrne Memorial State and Local Law Enforcement Assistance formula grant program is administered by the BJA and provides funding to assist states and units of local government in controlling and preventing drug abuse, crime, and violence, and in improving the function of the criminal justice system. The Byrne Formula grant program has 29 designated purpose areas that include: prosecution, adjudication, community crime prevention, and development of criminal justice information systems.
- The Local Law Enforcement Block Grants Program (LLEBG) provides formula-based funding to units of local government to help reduce crime and improve public safety. Each year, BJA contacts local governments that are eligible to apply for direct awards under the program. Award amounts are determined by each local government’s crime rate, as reported to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reporting System. Local governments that qualify for awards over $10,000 receive direct awards from BJA. Each state receives LLEBG funds that can be used to hire or pay overtime to police officers, establish multi-jurisdictional task forces, purchase basic law enforcement equipment, and a number of other purpose areas.
- OJJDP’s Formula Grants Program, Title V Incentive Grants for Local Delinquency Prevention Programs, Enforcing the Underage Drinking Laws Program, and Part E State Challenge Grants programs support state and local efforts to improve the juvenile justice system to prevent delinquency.
- The Juvenile Accountability Incentive Block Grants program supports state and local efforts to address juvenile crime by encouraging reforms that hold all offenders accountable for their crimes.
- The Residential Substance Abuse Treatment program supports individual and group substance abuse treatment activities for offenders in residential facilities operated by state and local correctional agencies.
- The Violent Offender Incarceration/Truth in Sentencing grant programs help states build or expand correctional facilities for adult or juvenile offenders. The Violent Offender Incarceration grant program is administered on a three-tiered formula basis, while the Truth in Sentencing awards are distributed as an incentive to states for enhancing sentencing reform to ensure that violent offenders serve longer portions of their sentences.
- The STOP Violence Against Women Formula Grants program supports improvements in law enforcement response to violence against women, development of more effective strategies and programs to prevent crimes against women, and improvements in data collection and tracking systems. By law, at least a quarter of S?T?O?P funds must be dedicated to enhancing direct services to crime victims.
- The Victim Assistance and Victim Compensation grant programs are funded through the Crime Victims Fund, which is derived from fines, penalty assessment, and bail forfeitures collected from federal criminal offenders (not from taxpayers). Victim Assistance subgrants provide funding for approximately 3,300 victims’ assistance programs, including rape crisis centers, battered women’s shelters, children’s advocacy centers, and victim services units within law enforcement agencies. Together, these organizations service more than 2 million crime victims each year. State victim compensation programs serve an additional 200,000 victims annually by providing financial assistance to victims to help defray some of the economic costs of crime.
Discretionary Grant Programs
- The Grants to Encourage Arrest Policies and Enforcement of Protection Orders Program is designed to encourage state, local, and tribal governments, and state, local, and tribal courts to treat domestic violence as a serious violation of criminal law requiring the coordinated involvement of the entire criminal justice system. At least 5 percent of the funding for this program must be available for grants to Indian tribal governments.
- The Rural Domestic Violence and Child Victimization Enforcement Grants Program is designed to enhance services available to rural victims and children by encouraging community involvement in developing a coordinated response to domestic violence, dating violence, and child abuse. Eligible applicants include tribal governments in rural and nonrural states. At least 5 percent of the funding for this program must be available for grants to Indian tribal governments.
- The Legal Assistance for Victims Grants Program is designed to strengthen legal assistance programs for victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking. Five percent of the funding for this program is set aside for grants to programs that assist victims of domestic violence, sexual assault, and stalking on lands within the jurisdiction of an Indian tribe.
- The Safe Havens for Children Pilot Program is designed to help create safe places for visitation with and exchange of children in cases of domestic violence, child abuse, sexual assault, or stalking. At least 5 percent of the funding for this program is available for grants to Indian tribal governments.
- Formula grants are awarded directly to state and local governments, including tribal governments and nonprofit organizations, based on a predetermined formula that is often based upon a jurisdiction’s crime rate, population, or some other factor. States generally are required to pass a significant portion of formula awards to local agencies and organizations in the form of subgrants. Discretionary awards may be awarded to states, units of local government, Indian tribes and tribal organizations, individuals, educational institutions, hospitals, and both private nonprofit and commercial organizations at the discretion of the awarding agency.